Wednesday, February 21, 2024

The Vilon Peptide – A Subject of Interest in Biochemistry and Biotechnology

This article will focus on Vilon and its involvement in extensive research in biochemistry and biotechnology.

Vilon is a dipeptide constituted by the amino acids lysine and glutamic acid. The compound in question is alternatively referred to as ‘lysglutamic acid.'[i] This peptide has been proposed as having potential immunological activity and the potential ability to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce anti-aging action. Studies suggest this peptide may affect vital organs, including the liver, heart, and kidney. Additionally, it is worth noting that this peptide is among the shortest known. Researchers speculate Vilon may manifest its properties through potential interactions with the chromatin structure.

Research suggests the Vilon peptide may demonstrate certain action on chromatin, as outlined by two specific pathways.

  • The chromatin structures may become unrolled.
  • The activation of ribosomal genes may stimulate the synthetic process.
  • It may activate dormant genes.
  • It may not be possible to decondense the chromatin on either side of the centromere of a chromosome.
  • Vilon may modify DNA structure by acting on the chromatin, thereby possible reactivating genes and cells that have become inactive. 

Vilon Peptide Overview

Vilon is classified as a bioregulatory peptide and has been suggested to possess immunomodulatory properties that could potentially enhance the immune system, particularly in subjects with compromised immune function.

Scholarly research suggests Vilon may have the potential to stimulate the interleukin-2 protein in spleen cells, which is considered crucial in preserving immune function. The stimulation of the immune response against microbial infection and foreign bodies while simultaneously preventing detrimental autoimmune reactions may be observed. Vilon has been suggested by research to stimulate white blood and spleen cells, potentially enhancing an organism’s innate immunity against autoimmune disorders.

In 2002, an investigation was carried out to examine the potential of three bioregulatory peptides on interleukin-2 mRNA synthesis in spleen cells. The findings of this research suggested the magnitude of interleukin-2 mRNA production in splenocytes was contingent upon the category and duration of exposure to the peptides. Findings suggested the compounds Vilon and Epithalon appeared to exhibit a higher potency, whereas Cortagen elicited a comparatively weaker impact on the synthesis of interleukin-2 mRNA. [ii]

Moreover, researchers suggest it is plausible that Vilon peptides may possibly alleviate autoimmune activity through their interaction with the thymus gland. The thymus gland is widely acknowledged to play a crucial role in the expansion of T-helper cells, and the Vilon peptide has been suggested to augment this expansion. Research conducted by N N Sevostianiva et al. suggests that the Vilon peptide is a bioactive substance that may exhibit immunomodulatory and antiallergic properties. [iii]

Vilon Peptide and Lifespan

Studies suggest Vilon may potentially increase the average lifespan of experimental models. Vilon has been proposed to have some capability of augmenting the immune system, ameliorating physical stamina and vitality, and consequently, potentially elevating the mean lifespan of subjects participating in experimental trials. [iv] It is recommended that Vilon commence studying for the test model lifespan at an earlier stage rather than a later one to achieve the most lucid and unambiguous outcome. The hypothesis put forth by researchers suggests that giving a bioregulator such as Vilon during the later stages of life may have the potential to solely reverse “silent” cells without exerting any action on cells that have undergone apoptosis.

Vilon Peptide and Carcinogenic Cell Growth

Several studies have suggested that the Vilon peptide may possess the ability to impede the proliferation of cancerous cells by potentially obstructing the development of novel tumors, as well as potentially hindering the growth of pre-existing tumors. [v]

Vilon Peptide and the Gastrointestinal Tract

Studies suggest the Vilon peptide has the potential to modulate gastrointestinal functionality by augmenting the enzymatic activity of specific enzymes within the gastrointestinal tract. Through this process, the peptide may enhance physical resilience against gastrointestinal-specific ailments and mitigate intestinal permeability in experimental subjects. Researchers speculate that the introduction of Vilon may improve glucose accumulation and glycine absorption by exerting possible action on the small intestine muscles. [vi]

Vilon Peptide and Gene Expression

The researchers have hypothesized that the Vilon peptide has the potential to modulate the gene expression of 36 genes in the heart based on their findings in test subjects. Upon introducing the peptide Epithalon, a total of 144 genes expression changes were observed by the research team. The studies suggested that the peptide and its anologs may possibly affect the genetic expression within the cardiac system, which could potentially influence the hemodynamic properties. [10)

Vilon Peptide and Fibrinolysis

A study by researchers suggested that Vilon may induce fibrinolysis and enhance endogenous anticoagulants such as antithrombin III and protein C. It was additionally speculated to decrease insulin levels and potentially modulate the metabolism of carbohydrates. [vii] Scientists hypothesized that Vilon might enhance the permeability of mesenteric microvessels within the vascular system. The findings of N. Gavrisheva et al. suggest the intervention may generate a homeostatic impact during the initial stages of chronic renal insufficiency. [viii]

The information presented above is solely for educational purposes. The utilization of Vilon  is limited to research and educational institutions, Core Peptides is an excellent platform for authorized researchers seeking to procure peptides for research or academic study. It is important to note that none of the substances discussed in this context have received approval for consumption by either humans or animals. Compounds utilized in scientific research mustn’t be employed beyond the confines of a laboratory setting. The act of providing a personal introduction of any nature is strictly prohibited.

References 

[i] National Center for Biotechnology Information (2022). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 7010502, Lysylglutamic acid. Retrieved November 21, 2022 from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Lysylglutamic-acid

[ii] Kazakova TB, Barabanova SV, Khavinson VKh, Glushikhina MS, Parkhomenko EP, Malinin VV, Korneva EA. In vitro effect of short peptides on expression of interleukin-2 gene in splenocytes. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002 Jun;133(6):614-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12447482/

[iii] Sevostianova NN, Linkova NS, Polyakova VO, Chervyakova NA, Kostylev AV, Durnova AO, Kvetnoy IM, Abdulragimov RI, Khavinson VH. Immunomodulating effects of Vilon and its analogue in the culture of human and animal thymus cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013 Feb;154(4):562-5. English, Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23486604/

[iv] Khavinson VK, Anisimov VN, Zavarzina NY, Zabezhinskii MA, Zimina OA, Popovich IG, Shtylik AV, Malinin VV, Morozov VG. Effect of vilon on biological age and lifespan in mice. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2000 Jul;130(7):687-90. DOI: 10.1007/BF02682106. PMID: 11140587. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11140587/

[v] Khavinson VKh, Anisimov VN. A synthetic dipeptide vilon (L-Lys-L-Glu) inhibits the growth of spontaneous tumors and increases the life span of mice. Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 May-Jun;372:261-3. PMID: 10944717. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10944717/

[vi] Khavinson VKh, Egorova VV, Timofeeva NM, Malinin VV, Cordova LA, Gromova LV. Effect of Vilon and Epithalon on glucose and glycine absorption in various regions of small intestine in aged rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002 May;133(5):494-6. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12420071/

[vii] Kuznik BI, Isakova NV, Kliuchereva NN, Maleeva NV, Pinelis IS. [Effect of vilon on the immunity status and coagulation hemostasis in patients of different age with diabetes mellitus]. Adv Gerontol. 2007;20(2):106-15. Russian. PMID: 18306698. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18306698/

[viii] Gavrisheva NA, Malinin VV, Ses TP, Kozlov KL, Panchenko AV, Titkov AY. Effect of peptide Vilon on the content of transforming growth factor-beta and permeability of microvessels during experimental chronic renal failure. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005 Jan;139(1):24-6. DOI: 10.1007/s10517-005-0202-9. PMID: 16142267. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16142267/