From ‘super-recognisers’ to the ‘face blind’ – how tests reveal the underlying cognitive processes

The ability to recognise faces is important in many different real life contexts and fundamental to our social relationships and interactions. It allows us to identify people we care about, and respond appropriately to them. We may greet a friend differently to our boss, for example. But some people are simply better than others at recognising faces.

At one end of the spectrum, there are people called “super-recognisers”. They find face recognition easy – often successfully identifying people even if they have only seen them once, briefly or a long time ago. Conversely, people with “developmental prosopagnosia” are at the opposite end of the face recognition scale. They find it tricky to recognise faces and can therefore struggle to socially interact with those around them.

People with this type of “face blindness” may not realise they have it until they reach their teenage years or later. For most of us though, our face recognition ability falls between these extremes – we aren’t super-good, but we aren’t particularly bad either.

It may seem that face recognition is a single, isolated skill. But psychologists know that the ability depends on a number of different cognitive processes that interact in complex ways.

Measuring face recognition

 

If we are to test face recognition accurately, it is important that we know what it is. And it turns out that different tests may produce different results.

One task used to measure how good we are at determining identity in unfamiliar faces is called “face matching”, captured, for example, by the Glasgow Face Matching Test. Here you are presented with two faces and asked whether they belong to the same person or different people. Performance across 40 pairs, ranges from being just over chance (guessing) to 100% correct.

Being good at face matching is particularly important for some jobs. Indeed, passport control officers verify identity by matching the identity of a live person to a photo in a passport.

But being good at face matching doesn’t necessarily make you a super-recogniser. Indeed some matching tasks may not be difficult enough to allow super recognisers to show off their skills. The Cambridge Face Memory Test is an example of a “face learning task”. It measures your ability to learn and identify previously unknown faces. Specifically, you memorise the faces of different people and then try to pick them out of a line-up of three faces. The test starts very easy and gets progressively more difficult. Doing well on this task depends on your ability to see the visual differences between faces and to memorise them.

Finally, we can test familiar face recognition. When recognising familiar faces, we are tapping into our stored long-term memories of known people. We may know them as a family member or friend, or it may be someone from our favourite TV show. Most familiar face recognition tasks ask people to try to recognise famous faces either from current footage or use a test based on celebrity faces from before they were famous.
 

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