Scientists unlock potential for a small cell lung cancer blood test

Doctors could one day diagnose and characterise early stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) with a simple blood test thanks to a transatlantic study led by CRUK Manchester Institute Cancer Biomarker Centre researchers at the University of Manchester with a team at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York published in Nature Cancer.

The study focussed on a new sensitive blood test to detect, characterise and monitor Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive form of lung cancer.

SCLC is a fast-growing type of cancer that can rapidly spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Most small SCLC patients, representing 10-15% of all lung cancer cases, are diagnosed late with advanced metastatic disease and few survive beyond 1 to 2 years.  However, of the minority of patients with SCLC who are diagnosed very early and have surgery, 6 out of 10 can live for 5 years or more.

The research team developed a new method to analyse blood samples and pick up specific DNA modifications called methylation that change early on in the growth of cancers. The team also developed a sophisticated computational method to assess which methylation modifications were present.

They focussed on making their method sensitive enough to find methylation modifications in the very low levels of DNA shed from a patient’s tumour into the blood stream, known as called circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA).  The test was sufficiently sensitive and accurate to detect methylation of ctDNA, even from patients whose tumours were diagnosed at the earliest stage.

The standard treatment for SCLC is chemotherapy, but there are multiple types of SCLC that, recent studies suggest, would respond differently to a range of therapies. The new blood test developed by the team could also classify which type of SCLC is affecting a patient, supporting the potential for more personalised treatment options.

Professor Caroline Dive who led the study, which was funded by which was funded by the USA National Cancer Institute (NCI)  and  Cancer Research UK, said: “SCLC is a terrible disease, causing so much anguish to patients and their families. We think this blood test could be really useful in future clinical trials of new therapies to predict and monitor treatment responses”.

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